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Effects of CAD/CNC technology on the design and creation of products


 

Table of contents

Preface


  1. Presentation of the techniques


background


1.1 Definition CAD 3

1.11 CAD technology 4

1.12 CAD work steps 5


1.2 Definition CNC 6

1.21 CNC technology 6


1.3 Rapid Prototyping 7


1.4 Reverse engineering 8


1.5 Virtual Reality 9

1.51 Technology 9


  1. Application of computer-controlled methods


Examples


2.1 Design with CAD programs Example Mont Blanc 10

2.2 Manufacturing methods CNC example C- stool 11

2.3 Rapid prototyping application example implants 12

2.4 Reverse engineering example Voijtek Statue 13

2.5 Virtual Reality example VW 14


  1. Effects of computer-controlled design


3.1 From conventional manufacturing to NC/CNC technology 15

3.2 Impact on development 16

3.3 Effects on the products 17




Appendix 18


Bibliography 19


Quotes 20


Photo credit 21



Preface



The change from pure manual work to machine production to computer-aided elaboration has resulted in a development that influences areas in the development, design work and execution of design-relevant content.

In this script I examine the extent to which computer-aided elaboration influences the creation of design, its implementation and the effects on people, as well as the quality of the products.

After presenting the current developments and tendencies, the effects of computer-aided development are examined and the resulting advantages and problems of working methods that are now optimized for rational production are questioned.



1 Presentation of the techniques


background


1.1 Definition CAD


CAD is the abbreviation of Computer Aided Design , or computer-aided design. CAD programs are not just used to create technical drawings .

The programs initially create three-dimensional volume models . Two-dimensional/three-dimensional drawings and even moving visualizations of objects can be derived from this.

CAD software is used in all specialist areas in which designs are developed for use, for example: in plant engineering , mechanical engineering , shipbuilding and also in architecture , design and construction .


A wide variety of simulations can be carried out with the volume models using special software. For example, load simulations ( finite element method ) for components , light simulations or simulations of the interior climate in buildings , flow simulations (wind or waves), crash simulations in vehicle construction and simulations of various manufacturing processes (e.g. injection molding ).

The data created can be used for strength calculations , generative manufacturing processes and of course also in CNC manufacturing with machines. As well as being part of computer-integrated production ( CIM ). An example of this will be given later in Chapter 2.1 using Mont Blanc as an example.


Modern programs are based on object-oriented databases. Each design component consists of one or more programmed objects. Changes and specifications are the parameters of the objects. These may be based on relations with other aspects and provide versions and variations of the same item. Object-oriented databases allow optimal reusability of design components, the best possible recording of the designer's intentions, and the possibility of rapid adaptation. (Quote 1)


1.11 CAD technology

2D

Simple 2D CAD systems are vector-oriented drawing programs. Drawing elements are points , lines , polylines , arcs , splines . Tools allow you to create, position, modify and delete drawing elements. The working method itself differs only slightly from classic work on the drawing board. Significant progress is achieved through the use of layers ( layer technique ) and working with predefined symbols (e.g. for standard and repeat parts). More developed CAD systems support the semi- or fully automatic generation of dimensions and hatching . Another feature of modern 2D CAD systems is the use of associativity between drawing elements, for example between lines and dimensions. Professional CAD systems provide programming interfaces to expand functionality or for user-specific adaptation.

2D CAD systems are mainly used by architects because, despite being less computationally intensive, similar results are possible as with solid models.

3D

A 3D CAD system processes a volume model of the construction object. The following modeling methods are common

  • Edge model

The body edges are mapped using a mathematical description. In this case, however, an exact description of the surfaces lying between the edges is only given for planar surfaces.

  • Surface model

The surfaces delimiting the body are described by a mathematical description, for example by NURBS surfaces (for Non Uniform Rational B-Splines ). In addition, the topology of the surfaces, i.e. which surface borders which other surface, is usually also saved.

  • Construction history

The construction object is derived from basic geometries such as cuboids , cylinders , cones through a series of construction steps (such as combining, cutting ). The order of the construction steps as well as the geometric parameters of the basic bodies are saved. A key advantage of history-based modeling is its high level of flexibility. By making changes to the individual construction steps, the geometry can also be changed subsequently in many ways.

Modern 3D CAD systems support all 3 modeling methods as well as their extensive associativity between different geometric elements and especially between the 3D object and the drawing derived from it.

For example, by changing the diameter dimension in the drawing of a hole, the 3D model of the part of the assembly in which the part is installed can be modified - but at the same time the tool required for production can also be modified. (Quote 2)



1.12 CAD work steps

1.2 Definition CNC


CNC is the abbreviation for Computerized Numerical Control, or translated computer-aided numerical machine control.

The machine tool is controlled with the help of a computer that is directly integrated into the machine tool control.

The CNC emerged from the NC, Numerical Control , in which the information does not work as a complete program in the control of a machine, but is fed in sentence by block from a punched tape.

The era of CNC technology began around the mid- 1970s . It enabled rationalization in series production (e.g. in mechanical manufacturing companies), but also in individual production (e.g. in tool making ). (Quote 3)


The advantages of a CNC control are, on the one hand, the ability to easily process complex geometries (3D), and on the other hand, the processing/repeat accuracy and high speed of the processing steps. The ability to save programs means that many identical parts can be produced in series without human intervention. In addition, CNC technology enables new machine concepts because no mechanical connection between the main drive and the feed drives is necessary.


1.21 CNC technology


Today, the majority of newly developed machine tools are equipped with a CNC control. The CNC technology allows partially automated processing with 2, 2 1/2 and 3 axes. Machine tools with more than 3 numerically controlled processing axes are no longer uncommon today.

It is now possible to reach any point in the machining area of a machine tool by using the three axes X, Y and Z. But only axially parallel movements are possible. For example, to make a hole at an angle of 45°, it is necessary to rotate the workpiece or the tool (or both). Modern machines offer the option of rotating the machine table clockwise or counterclockwise to enable further contour processing. These axes of rotation are designated by the letters A, B and C depending on their arrangement on the machine: A rotating around the X-axis, B around the Y-axis and C around the Z-axis. Furthermore, so-called auxiliary axes can exist parallel to X, Y, Z, which are then called U, V, W. All axis directions can occur multiple times on a machine tool and then receive an index. (Quote 4)


1.3 Rapid Prototyping


Rapid prototyping is the rapid production of sample components based on design data that was previously created in CAD programs or digitized using reverse engineering (see 1.4), starting from a real model.

Rapid prototyping processes are manufacturing processes that aim to convert existing CAD data directly and quickly into workpieces, if possible without manual detours.

The processes that have become known since the 1980s are generally primary forming processes that build the workpiece in layers from shapeless or shape-neutral material using physical and/or chemical effects.


Applications of rapid prototyping include stereolithography (STL), selective laser sintering (SLS), laser generation , fused deposition modeling (FDM), laminated object modeling (LOM), 3D printing and multi jet modeling .

The areas of application for these manufacturing processes, which initially focused on the production of models and prototypes - hence the term rapid prototyping - have been expanded to include other fields.


These include:


In conjunction with other technologies such asreverse engineering (digitization) , CAD, virtual reality (see 1..5), as well as modern tool making processes, the process chain within product development is also referred to as rapid product development . (Quote 5)

Immediately after the publication of the first commercial rapid prototyping processes in 1987, future applications and possible uses were already found. Inspired by this technology, developers have devised scenarios that completely eliminate the need to stockpile spare parts. and want to replace them with appropriate rapid prototyping systems “just in time”, i.e. only produce the parts when they are needed

The proposal to make the entire spare parts inventory of fleet units, for example on an aircraft carrier, superfluous and to ensure flexible supply through the appropriate use of rapid prototyping (metal) systems was discussed particularly intensively.

Today, scenarios are also being considered in which it would be possible to bring equipment and spare parts to distant celestial bodies, such as Mars, using methods of so-called rapid manufacturing. These considerations only take effect if it is possible to allow prototypers to work effectively with the materials available there. (Quote 6)


These future-oriented applications show the importance that can be given to this technology and the great potential that exists here.



1.4 Reverse engineering


Contrary to the usual development process, which means that a product is created from a data model, with reverse engineering a CAD data set is obtained from an existing prototype/product/tool, i.e. from the real physical product to the digital construction.

Reverse engineering thereby creates express access from the existing workpiece to a design model in the computer world and thus significantly accelerates the development process.

The data feedback methods used for this are based on two systems that provide the spatial coordinates of the product/workpiece. These systems are:

Tactile digitizing:

Contact measurement method (a ball is attached to a spring)

  • Surface is recorded line by line

  • Then: Back calculation to zero geometry

  • suitable for objects with a high proportion of free-form surfaces

  • Tactile measurement allows a maximum of 12,000 data per surface.

and optical digitization

Laser scanner detects the object (similar to the cash register scanner)

  • Very fast digitization through extensive object detection

  • Very good for freeform surfaces

Using a digital camera, around 20 million measuring points on the surface are possible. (Quote 7)


1.5 Virtual reality


Until a few years ago, the representation of models, constructions or virtual worlds was limited to 3-dimensional model studies or 2-dimensional images with the attempt to present the most realistic image of the object and to develop an initial feeling for it. The developer and designer knew how to study construction, function, form and expression.

Particularly in architecture and the automotive industry (see 2.5), there are limits to realistic reproduction using media that can only partially simulate a detailed environment that reacts to environmental influences with light, shadows and local conditions.

With new software and hardware, it has now been possible to overcome existing barriers and open the door to the world of virtual reality.

This technology (VR technology for short) makes it possible to display any existing and non-existent objects in three dimensions using a computer.

Non-existent objects can, for example, be products that are in the planning stage and can be visualized realistically in this way. Furthermore, impressions can be conveyed that are not tangible in reality, for example because certain processes occur too quickly or are completely invisible. The use of VR technology also brings the user qualitative benefits in the form of an image gain and competitive advantages through the presentation of high-tech competence and creation of a 3D experience. This can be used particularly effectively in the areas of marketing and public relations (e.g. when presenting projects to make them more accessible to outsiders) (Quote 8)

Virtual Reality can be used for the following areas:

  • Construction: Engineers can use VR technology to work on virtual designs over long distances.

  • Medical research: Scientists use VR for a variety of medical projects, such as imaging the heart, enzymes or DNA research.

  • Entertainment: Immersion in video games is increasing. Functional ports already exist for the 3D games Doom 1, Quake 2 and Quake 3.

1.51 Technology


In order to create a feeling of immersion , ie the immersion or the degree of immersion in a virtual reality scene , special output devices are required to display virtual worlds. The most well-known are the head-mounted display HMD (or VR helmet), large screens or the CAVE (Cave Automated Virtual Environment, i.e. cave with an automated, virtual environment). To create a spatial impression, two images are created and displayed. Various technologies exist to present the respective image to the right eye.

A distinction is made between active ones, such as shutter glasses , and passive ones, such as polarization filters . Conventional input devices, such as a keyboard or mouse, can sometimes still be used to interact with the virtual world. However, depending on the complexity of the requirement, special controls are required. These include the Spacemouse , the data glove and the Fly-Stick. (Quote 9)

2 Applications of the technologies


2.1 Design with CAD programs

Example Mont Blanc


The possible uses of CAD software are large: It is not only technical construction but also the manufacturing and production of objects that takes place with the help of the computer.

Using the “masterpiece” of the Mont Blanc brand, I would like to illustrate how a fusion of traditional craftsmanship with modern technical innovation creates an excellent product that shows the love of craftsmanship and detail, the sensual material appeal and the spirit of progress.


»Traditionally, Montblanc responds to the fast pace of modern times with high-touch, high-tech, i.e. products that we enjoy with the senses.

But that doesn't mean that we don't use high-tech products to be able to present our customers with a range that is fascinating

and timeless design impresses with its unique and flawless quality.« (Quote 10)


The Unigraphics Solutions software is used to accelerate the entire development, production and manufacturing process.

The main criterion for selecting this software solution is an effort to comprehensively support the entire process chain, which was previously not possible. The focus here is on the possibility of parametric model construction and the associative connection of the models to their derivations, such as drawings and FEM calculations (finite element method).

For example, a proof of use can be used to check which writing instruments use certain parts, while also managing the material and surface finish such as solid gold, gold-plated, platinum-plated or engraved.

Such diversification enables, among other things, the use of basic parts from Montblanc such as rings, which are available in up to 40 different versions with the same basic geometry.

For problematic components such as writing instrument clips, not only can free-form surface modulations be created, but also checked for mechanical strength.

These FEM calculations are used particularly for the design of the nibs to guarantee optimal ink flow. The craft's decades of experience are further optimized here using computer technology.

The design of injection molding tools as well as the production of the assembly holders can be implemented quickly thanks to the availability of all design data and, if necessary, changed across the board from a central location. Furthermore, the visualization functions of the software can significantly reduce the variety of product designs that previously had to be realized through prototyping. This also led to an acceleration in decision-making regarding the production of new products or the expansion of existing collections. (Quote 11)


2.2 CNC manufacturing methods

Example C- stool


The possibility of using computers to explore new ways of processing and implementing traditional working methods and designs has opened up new possibilities, which will be explained in the following example.

Based on the so-called “Ulmer Stool”, originally designed in 1954 by Max Bill for the Ulm University of Design, the C-Stool was created as an experimental object at the HfG Offenbach.

The furniture is essentially a modern interpretation of this “design classic”. It was created in the school’s C laboratory (computer) and can be seen as a homage to the “old master”. .

It consists of 4 individual elements. These are connected with fingertip galvanizing, the form and function of which is a further development of traditional dovetail connectors.

It reflects the technical features that are possible with a standard 3-axis CNC milling machine. The galvanizing was modified so that with a horizontally clamped plate it can be milled in one operation with the edge trimming of the workpieces.

Due to the round milling head, however, the result was not a flat one, but rather a semi-circular tine base the size of the milling diameter, so that a small, crescent-like gap was created when the boards were joined together.

Since this gap seemed like a faulty design, but on the other hand was unavoidable, it had to be milled deeper than necessary. The initially indistinct gap was exaggerated into a clearly intended sign of the new production tool.(12)

For practical use in carpentry, it is now possible to produce this piece of furniture without any laborious handwork.

The result is a product that can be adapted to specific customer requirements in terms of dimensions with minor modifications.

 


2.3 Application of rapid prototyping

Example implants


One area of application for rapid prototyping technology is replacing or building existing structures in the form of implants.

In this way, dentures or artificial bones can be produced with a precise fit in a short time. Implants must be manufactured individually and with a precise fit. To date, dentures or artificial bones made of titanium have been manufactured using metal-shaping processes or casting. But both are complex and usually take weeks. It is much easier and quicker with laser melting, the remelting of metal powder using laser radiation. Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, together with industry, have further developed laser melting so that implants can be manufactured directly from computer tomography (CT) data. With the help of this data, the component is built layer by layer from metal powder.

A laser beam targets the exact areas that will form the implant and fuses the metal particles. Promising areas of application include dental and medical technology as well as the production of complex components in mold and model making.

The material properties are getting closer and closer to the target materials, so that serious competition for metal-cutting and shaping processing can soon be expected. (Quote 13)


2.4 Application of reverse engineering

Example Vojtech statue


In 1999, the State Institute for Monument Preservation in Prague began monitoring the condition of the statues on Prague's Charles Bridge.

The Vojtech statue standing there is very detailed and full of hidden areas. Capturing the sculpture with all its details represents a major challenge to the method used to precisely digitize the statue.

Through reverse engineering, the statue of Saint Adalbert (Czech: Vojtech) was optically digitalized in 3D and the measurement data obtained was used to produce copies that were true to the original.

A non-destructive measurement method (optical system) was used to record the current state - the photographic documentation of the "flat images" used previously did not meet the new requirement for an exact 3D replica of the statue.

Therefore, 3D digitization was necessary so that the statue's shape data could be archived, compared, and used to make copies. To ensure accurate recording, reference points were attached to the statue and photographs were taken from different camera positions with a digital camera.

These images were fed into a computer in which the evaluation software calculated the exact 3D position of the reference points on the object.

The network of reference points was used to automatically integrate the further digital photographs into the defined coordinate system with the help of computers. From the various measurements, the entire surface shape of the object could now be recorded precisely and efficiently and displayed digitally on the PC.

To record the congestion, more than 350 images were taken and over 37 million data points were recorded with a measuring point spacing of 0.5 mm. Depending on the statue and the required data density, such measurements can be carried out in two to three days. (Quote 14) 2.5 Virtual Reality application

Example VW


The use of new computer technology is particularly important in the automotive industry because of the short product cycles and high investment costs.

Especially in terms of development times and early visualization options, this technology represents a decisive competitive advantage right from the planning stage.

At VW in Wolfsburg, the advantage of this technology, worth around 20 million euros, has been used since 2004 and is setting new standards in the automotive industry with this unique 3D visualization center. (Quote 15)


The advantages are:

  • Working time savings of up to 30% because solutions can be identified immediately in the virtual space

  • Model and prototype construction from clay and later from sheet metal is no longer necessary

  • Checking the components and their design and function already in the development phase

  • Visual representation of environmental situations, vehicle appearance and lighting conditions

  • Use of drawer ideas via networking among those involved


3 The change from conventional manufacturing to NC/CNC technology


  1. effects on humans,

Voices of affected workers


The methods described above illustrate the potential that exists to explore new, future-oriented paths through computer-supported development and visualization.

On the one hand, their universal application possibilities enable the creation of products and their implementation, but also raise questions of criticism and concerns about the extent to which this has negative effects on people and their social contact points in their creation, implementation and ultimately on the man in production.


A skilled worker in a modern CNC production facility:

“Each of us who learned a profession grew up in the profession because a colleague worked next to him, who helped him, who passed on the experience. All of that is missing today. Everyone has to fend for themselves You are no longer able to leave your machine behind and go to the other colleague's machine and help him. This is only possible to a limited extent. Because everyone has enough to do with themselves and then there are different controls. He may be able to tell his colleagues what steps he has to do, but he doesn't know much about the controls either. And where can I ask anyone else in the company?” (Quote 16)


This quote illustrates the constant alienation of workers in CNC-controlled production. In the past, what counted was the knowledge gained through experience about the type of special processing and characteristics of the materials. The complexity of the control has reached dimensions that the average worker can no longer understand.

He becomes the operator of a technology that lacks a meaningful reference and satisfactory identification. This was previously given by a personal connection to the tool in the hand. Its peculiarities and peculiarities were known and made the worker who specialized in the machine irreplaceable. It was about mastering individuality.

Now every worker can operate the machine without having to have any special knowledge of its function.

He can be replaced at any time and becomes a henchman.

Although errors in production are eliminated, which increases costs and thus productivity, there is also a lack of that certain personal touch that manual work brings with it.

Furthermore, in the social area there is a loss of a sense of community and the emergence of superficiality, as everyone seems to be on their own and only sees colleagues as competition for the interchangeable workplace.


3.2 Impact on development


As already described in chapter (1), the use of CAD technology has great advantages in simplifying and thus rationalizing the resulting products. The technology makes it possible to send data by email all over the world. The digitally stored knowledge can be accessed at any time and is decentralized via the Internet.

However, the negative effects cannot be hidden either.

Auxiliary tools in development based on parametric calculations simplify the work, but they also determine the design all too quickly.

The design of the external form, the so-called form finding , can also be compared with the work of a sculptor who carves out an imaginary shape from a block of stone.

Today, successful product design is often a decisive criterion for the

purchase decision and thus for the market success of a product.

That's why industrial designers and marketing experts attach great importance to the availability of the most perfect visualizations possible in the early phases of product development. Since work in a model workshop is perceived as too slow and not always pleasant, there is a strong trend in industrial design towards working almost exclusively in virtual space with the help of computers. (Quote 17)

Due to the ever-increasing pressure to keep the time required for product development as short as possible, there is a tendency to use CAD systems as early as possible. Many engineers would prefer to develop the entire product virtually on the computer and only make the step from virtual to real when the tools are manufactured. In many cases this is already possible thanks to the rapid development of computer technology and advances in the field of simulation, but not in situations in which haptics play a role.

Maybe not absolutely necessary, but models are very helpful here

when developing products with ergonomic requirements or that have a high proportion of free-form surfaces.

In both cases, the designer should find the form directly on the model, i.e. work in the same way as a sculptor.

I think this seems to be the prerequisite for creating products that are designed by people for people and respond to their needs. Otherwise people will inevitably adapt to purely constructed objects that completely lack a personal connection.


4.3. Effects on the products


Nowadays, the use of computers creates products whose inherent quality of production by the worker can hardly be seen. Obviously contradicting the human need for one's own sensual quality, these only testify to the technical know-how that is necessary for development by computers.

Dedication to craftsmanship and a personal relationship to the design and its implementation by hand seem to have been lost. The human touch is missing!

Workpieces and furniture are manufactured quickly and precisely using machines, without any manual skills being required. The use of these new technical possibilities leads to a fundamental change in the reputation of craftsmanship and to a complete underestimation of the value and capabilities of the human hand. (Quote 18)

The wood craftsmen of our time are becoming too dependent on machines and devices that are quick and easy to use. However, this dependency means that the result of the work lacks the human touch.

If you look at cabinets and furniture from bygone eras, you can clearly feel their lively charisma. On the other hand, similar furniture that was produced using modern methods appears cold. It seems as if they are only made to serve a specific purpose. Of course, the craftsmen of earlier times also worked in a purpose-oriented manner, but they mainly used hand tools. So why is it that her work has so much more charisma?

The body transmits to the outside what is happening in the heart and mind of the person. This is then transferred to the finished item. Handwork creates minimal deviations, creating the impression of liveliness. Some call it vibration, some say that the furniture has a “craftsmanship touch”, I call it the human touch.”(..)(Quote 19)


I think such subconscious qualities cannot be conveyed to this extent by machines, especially in computer-controlled CNC manufacturing, because they are only able to carry out processes that lack the “human touch”. The result is perfectly crafted objects without the special appeal of individuality, without the hard work, experience and struggle with the elements and matter being noticeable, without any “inner” quality. Without a soul.

And that would be a shame!



4 Conclusion


By dealing with the effects of CAD/CNC technology, I became aware of the possibilities and advantages these technologies have.

However, it is also important to note that you still have to choose your use carefully.

It's all too easy to use a technology that results in superficiality and a loss of quality, so that old values and traditions are lost.

I think it makes sense to find a compromise between tradition, with its values and methods, when emotions, individuality and inner qualities are important, and the computer, which accelerates and simplifies many things through its innovative possibilities. He is able to do perfect work when accuracy, reproducibility and data exchange are important.

Only in the interaction of both paths can their qualities produce something satisfying that has both emotional qualities and enables rational creation.


5 Bibliography



CAD Cam Report

Engineering Magazine No. 10

Montblanc More than just writing instruments

Heidelberg, Dressler Verlag, October 2002


Faro Europe

Product launch Faro

Stuttgart, Faro Publications, 200


Gebhardt Andreas

Rapid prototyping

Tools for rapid product creation

Munich, Vienna Carl Hanser Verlag, 2000


Setter Rolf

Working with CNC machine tools

History of technology from below

Frankfurt am Main, University of Applied Sciences Publishers, 2000


Steffen Dagmar

C_Moebel

Digital design and creative uniqueness

Frankfurt, Anabas-Verlag, 200 3


Odate, Toshio

The product and its craft

Japanese carpenter's tools

Maier, Ravensburg, 1992


Volkswagen AG

Volkswagen Magazine

Life in the mobile world 01

Wolfsburg, Volkswagen AG, 2001


Wirth Joachim

Rapid Modeling

Representational CAD for “comprehensible” product design

Munich, Carl Hanser Verlag, 2002


Quotes


(1) cf. Vikipedia Definition CNC (see CD)

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Computerized_Numerical_Control.htm

As of June 14, 2005


(2) see Rapid Modeling page 15 (see bibliography)


(3) cf. Working with CNC machine tools page 28 (see bibliography)


(4) see Vikipedia definition of CAD

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_Aided_Design#CAD-Programme

As of June 15, 2005 (see CD)


(5) see Rapid Prototyping page 6 (see bibliography)


(6) cf. Vikipedia definition of rapid prototyping

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_Prototyping_%28Konstruction%29

As of June 17, 2005 (see CD)


(7) Faro product introduction page 3 (see bibliography)


(8) see VW Magazine page 18 (see bibliography)


(9) cf. VW Magazine page 19 (see bibliography)


(10) Quote: Dietmar Podszuweit, head of technical development at Mont Blanc in Hamburg.


(11) see CAD Cam Report page 2 (see bibliography)


(12) see C_Moebel page 76 (see bibliography)


(13) cf. Fraunhofer Society manufacture implants with rapid technologies

http://openpr.de/news/22402-implantate-mit-rapid-technologies-Fertigen.html

As of June 29, 2005 (see CD)


(14) cf. Iltis GmbH From physical product to digital construction

http://www.gom.com/De/Applications/Digital/rev/charles_bridge.html

As of June 29, 2005 (see CD)


(15) cf. Volkswagen Magazine page 18 (see bibliography)


(16) Working with CNC machine tools page 9 (see bibliography)


(17) see Rapid Modeling page 13


(18) cf. The product and its craftsmanship, page 188 (see bibliography)


(19) Quote: Toshio Odate Japanese sliding door maker, professor at the Pratt Institute of Visual Art in New York



Photo credits


Fig.1: CAD work steps

Rapid Prototyping page 16 (see bibliography)


Fig. 2: Faro measuring arm

Faro product introduction page 3 (see bibliography)


Fig. 3: Mont Blanc masterpiece

CAD Cam Report page 2


Fig. 4: C-stool

C_Moebel page 76 (see bibliography)


Fig. 5: Head implant

Fraunhofer Society Rapid Prototyping

Manufacture implants with rapid technologies

http://openpr.de/news/22402-implantate-mit-rapid-technologies-Fertigen.html

As of June 30, 2005 (see CD)


Fig. 6: Digitization of the Voijtek statue

Reverse engineering

http://www.gom.com/De/Applications/Digital/rev/charles_bridge.html

As of June 30, 2005 (see CD)


Fig. 7: Virtual reality in development

VW Magazine page 18 (see bibliography)

Industrielle Produktion 31.1.97
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